1 that are used; "an isotropic resonance shift...to lower applied fields"
2 concerned with concrete problems or data rather than with fundamental principles; opposed to theoretical; "applied physics"; "applied psychology"; "technical problems in medicine, engineering, economics and other applied disciplines"- Sidney Hook [ant: theoretical]
3 put into practice or put to use; "applied physics"apply
1 put into service; make work or employ (something) for a particular purpose or for its inherent or natural purpose; "use your head!"; "we only use Spanish at home"; "I can't make use of this tool"; "Apply a magnetic field here"; "This thinking was applied to many projects"; "How do you utilize this tool?"; "I apply this rule to get good results"; "use the plastic bags to store the food"; "He doesn't know how to use a computer" [syn: use, utilize, utilise, employ]
2 be pertinent or relevant or applicable; "The same laws apply to you!"; "This theory holds for all irrational numbers"; "The same rules go for everyone" [syn: hold, go for]
3 ask (for something); "He applied for a leave of absence"; "She applied for college"; "apply for a job"
4 apply to a surface; "She applied paint to the back of the house"; "Put on make-up!" [syn: put on]
5 be applicable to; as to an analysis; "This theory lends itself well to our new data" [syn: lend oneself] [ant: defy]
6 give or convey physically; "She gave him First Aid"; "I gave him a punch in the nose" [syn: give]
7 avail oneself to; "apply a principle"; "practice a religion"; "use care when going down the stairs"; "use your common sense"; "practice non-violent resistance" [syn: practice, use]
8 ensure observance of laws and rules; "Apply the rules to everyone"; [syn: enforce, implement] [ant: exempt]
9 refer (a word or name) to a person or thing; "He applied this racial slur to me!"
- put into practical use
- of a branch of science, serving another branch of science or engineering
- (serving another branch): pure
Derived termsrel-top Derived terms
- applied anatomy
- applied anthropology
- applied art
- applied chemistry
- applied computing
- applied ecology
- applied engineering
- applied ethics
- applied kinesiology
- applied linguistics
- applied mathematics
- applied physics
- applied probability
- applied psychology
- applied science
- applied sociology
- applied statistics
concerned with practical problems, rather that theoretical abstractions
- past of apply
Research is defined as human activity based on intellectual application in the investigation of matter. The primary aim for applied research is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. Research can use the scientific method, but need not do so.
Scientific research relies on the application of the scientific method, a harnessing of curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world around us. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organisations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines.
Historical research is embodied in the historical method.
The term research is also used to describe an entire collection of information about a particular subject.
Basic research (also called fundamental or pure research) has as its primary objective the advancement of knowledge and the theoretical understanding of the relations among variables (see statistics). It is exploratory and often driven by the researcher’s curiosity, interest, and intuition. It is conducted without any practical end in mind, although it may have unexpected results pointing to practical applications. The terms “basic” or “fundamental” indicate that, through theory generation, basic research provides the foundation for further, sometimes applied research. As there is no guarantee of short-term practical gain, researchers may find it difficult to obtain funding for basic research. Research is a subset of invention.
Examples of questions asked in basic research:
Traditionally, basic research was considered as an activity that preceded applied research, which in turn preceded development into practical applications. Recently, these distinctions have become much less clear-cut, and it is sometimes the case that all stages will intermix. This is particularly the case in fields such as biotechnology and electronics, where fundamental discoveries may be made alongside work intended to develop new products, and in areas where public and private sector partners collaborate in order to develop greater insight into key areas of interest. For this reason, some now prefer the term frontier research. ...
Scientific researchGenerally, research is understood to follow a certain structural process. Though step order may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following steps are usually part of most formal research, both basic and applied:
A common misunderstanding is that by this method a hypothesis can be proven. Generally a hypothesis is used to make predictions that can be tested by observing the outcome of an experiment. If the outcome is inconsistent with the hypothesis, then the hypothesis is rejected. However, if the outcome is consistent with the hypothesis, the experiment is said to support the hypothesis. This careful language is used because researchers recognize that alternative hypotheses may also be consistent with the observations. In this sense, a hypothesis can never be proven, but rather only supported by surviving rounds of scientific testing and, eventually, becoming widely thought of as true (or better, predictive), but this is not the same as it having been proven. A useful hypothesis allows prediction and within the accuracy of observation of the time, the prediction will be verified. As the accuracy of observation improves with time, the hypothesis may no longer provide an accurate prediction. In this case a new hypothesis will arise to challenge the old, and to the extent that the new hypothesis makes more accurate predictions than the old, the new will supplant it.
HistoricalThe historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use historical sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. There are various history guidelines commonly used by historians in their work, under the headings of external criticism, internal criticism, and synthesis. This includes higher criticism and textual criticism. Though items may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following concepts are usually part of most formal historical research:
- Identification of origin date
- Evidence of localization
- Recognition of authorship
- Analysis of data
- Identification of integrity
- Attribution of credibility
Research methodsThe goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge, which takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be fuzzy):
Research methods used by scholars include:
- Action research
- Case study
- Citation Analysis
- Consumer ethnocentrism and CETSCALE
- Content or Textual Analysis
- Delphi method
- Experience and intuition
- Mathematical models
- Participant observation
- Statistical analysis
- Statistical surveys
- Q methodology
Research is often conducted using the hourglass model. The hourglass model starts with a broad spectrum for research, focusing in on the required information through the methodology of the project (like the neck of the hourglass), then expands the research in the form of discussion and results.
PublishingAcademic publishing describes a system that is necessary in order for academic scholars to peer review the work and make it available for a wider audience. The 'system', which is probably disorganised enough not to merit the title, varies widely by field, and is also always changing, if often slowly. Most academic work is published in journal article or book form. In publishing, STM publishing is an abbreviation for academic publications in science, technology, and medicine.
Most established academic fields have their own journals and other outlets for publication, though many academic journals are somewhat interdisciplinary, and publish work from several distinct fields or subfields. The kinds of publications that are accepted as contributions of knowledge or research vary greatly between fields.
Academic publishing is undergoing major changes, emerging from the transition from the print to the electronic format. Business models are different in the electronic environment. Since about the early 1990s, licensing of electronic resources, particularly journals, has been very common. Presently, a major trend, particularly with respect to scholarly journals, is open access. There are two main forms of open access: open access publishing, in which the articles or the whole journal is freely available from the time of publication, and self-archiving, where the author makes a copy of their own work freely available on the web.
Most funding for scientific research comes from two major sources, corporations (through research and development departments) and government (primarily through universities and in some cases through military contractors). Many senior researchers (such as group leaders) spend more than a trivial amount of their time applying for grants for research funds. These grants are necessary not only for researchers to carry out their research, but also as a source of merit. Some faculty positions require that the holder has received grants from certain institutions, such as the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). Government-sponsored grants (e.g. from the NIH, the National Health Service in Britain or any of the European research councils) generally have a high status.
EtymologyThe word research derives from the French recherche, from rechercher, to search closely where "chercher" means "to search" (see French language); its literal meaning is 'to investigate thoroughly'.
- Academic conference
- Advertising Research
- Creativity techniques
- Demonstrative evidence
- Due Diligence
- Empirical research
- European Charter for Researchers
- Internet research
- Lab notebook
- List of fields of doctoral studies
- Marketing research
- Open research
- Operations research
- Original research
- Participatory action research
- Psychological research methods
- Research and development
- Social research
- Empirical evidence
- conceptual framework
- The US National Library of Medicine
- How to write a research proposal
- The Italian Association for Research
- The Geneva Association (also known as the International Association for the Study of Insurance Economics)
- Industrial Research Institute
- Research Methods Institute
- European Industrial Research Management Association
- The EvaluationWiki
applied in Arabic: البحث
applied in Aragonese: Imbestigazión
applied in Asturian: Investigación
applied in Catalan: Investigació
applied in Corsican: Ricerca
applied in Danish: Forskning
applied in German: Forschung
applied in Modern Greek (1453-): Έρευνα επιστημονική
applied in Spanish: Investigación
applied in Esperanto: Scienca esploro
applied in Persian: پژوهش
applied in French: Recherche scientifique
applied in Friulian: Investigazion
applied in Korean: 연구
applied in Croatian: Istraživanje
applied in Indonesian: Riset
applied in Icelandic: Rannsókn
applied in Italian: Ricerca scientifica
applied in Hebrew: שיטות מחקר
applied in Dutch: Onderzoek
applied in Japanese: 研究
applied in Norwegian: Forskning
applied in Norwegian Nynorsk: Forsking
applied in Occitan (post 1500): Recèrca
applied in Portuguese: Pesquisa
applied in Kölsch: Fochsche
applied in Quechua: K'uskiykuy
applied in Simple English: Research
applied in Finnish: Tutkimus
applied in Swedish: Forskning
applied in Vietnamese: Nghiên cứu
applied in Venetian: Ricerca
applied in Yiddish: פארשונג
applied in Chinese: 研究